The nutritional quality of milk depends on the proportion of its components, protein, fat, sugars and minerals that make up the milk solids. The proportion of milk solids depends on the cow’s genetics.
There must be healthy cows, with organs and systems in optimal functional level. This depends on many things, among others of the zootechnical management to which the cow is submitted, of the sanitary programs. In addition, having well-nourished cows ensures the raw material. This depends on the good planning and advice of a nutritionist. We must remember that it is not the same nurturing than feed and in the basic process are things omitted by complex aspects.
The amount of protein in milk depends on the genetic code and is related to the presence of limiting amino acids, lysine, methionine, valine, leucine and isoleucine. If any of these are missing, the protein synthesis process stops.
The amount of milk fat can vary and depends on the quantity and quality of the fiber, the proportion of forage in the center, the availability of easily fermentable sugars, the synthesis of fats from different sources such as preformed fatty acids in the blood , Fatty acids synthesized from glucose, fatty acids synthesized in the udder from VFA synthesized by rumen bacteria.
The main factor in the hygienic and sanitary quality of milk is the bacterial count of milk. This depends on 4 factors: Milking routine, equipment cleaning, milk cooling and incidence of mastitis. These are the responsibility of the producer.
The main cause of high bacterial counts is an inadequate milking routine due to aspects of hygiene and practices prior to milking. Any surface that is in contact with the liner or with the hands in case of manual milking should be clean and dry. It is best to evaluate cleaning during milking, the presence of sediment in the filter after milking.
These are the source of contamination with coliforms and consequently of high bacterial counts and if it is related to an incorrect or improper chilling, it also translates into milk acidity. To avoid accumulation of manure in the udders, the cow must be provided with clean and comfortable nests. If the floor where you sleep is hard, the cow will seek comfort and is going to lie where it finds a soft surface that is the manure and if it is wet better. This complicates milking for dirt excess.
The bacterial count also depends on the washing of the equipment, because there are critical sites that favor the development of bacteria. In the case of mechanical milking all the points of attachment and angles or corners where the milk flows, in the nipple, pipelines of milk line and cooling tank; Are sites of accumulation of fat and milk, which if not properly cleaned, constitute culture media for bacteria that pass into the milk during the flow and contaminate it. The cooling of the milk to a range of 2-4 degrees C ° should be immediate, because the bacterial growth, is exponential and is related to the ambient temperature and the cooling time.
The bacterial count also depends on the incidence of mastitis and the somatic cell count depends on the incidence of subclinical mastitis.